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The analysis of intra-group correlations between LS and BW at representative intervals yields no consistent support for the hypothesis that lower BW is.
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Experimentally, the impact of body mass on tmax is relevant because it can bias comparative studies of aging Promislow, ; Speakman, Researchers trying to identify factors that correlate with tmax must eliminate the effects of body mass from their calculations, which can be done with certain statistical procedures. In fact, body mass appears to correlate with many life history events besides maximum lifespan: gestation period, time to maturity, etc.

Therefore, researchers studying whether a given factor correlates with tmax or not must play close attention to the impact of body size.

As I discuss in the context of theories of aging , this has not always been done, however, sometimes resulting in erroneous interpretations of experimental results. Brain mass also correlates with tmax , even after correcting for the biases caused by body mass. This is particularly true in primates Allman et al. The way brain mass appears to be a better predictor of longevity than body mass is probably due to less variation in brain mass Lindstedt and Calder, Therefore, even though it can be argued that this relationship shows the influence of the brain on longevity, it does not prove that the causes of aging are located in the brain.

In fact, the size of other organs also correlate with tmax , in some cases more strongly than brain size Austad and Fischer, Besides, ecological explanations are also possible in that maybe animals with bigger brains are better at escaping predators for a number of reasons. Even though bigger species tend to be longer-lived than smaller ones, it is interesting to note that there are a number of cases in which smaller animals within a given species live longer in captivity.

These include mice, rats, horses, and dogs Miller, ; Miller et al. For example, it is well-known that smaller breeds of dogs live longer. Interestingly, it has been argued that "little people" may also be longer-lived Krzisnik et al. Therefore, it appears that while on one hand bigger species tend to be longer-lived, within a given species smaller individuals--in protected environments--tend to live longer.

The possible physiological and genetic reasons for the latter phenomenon and implications for our understanding of aging are debated in another essay. Another relationship long studied in gerontology is Kleiber's rule that relates maximum lifespan with metabolic rate Kleiber, ; Gosden, , pp. Kleiber's rule actually originates in a theory of aging called the "rate of living theory," which is discussed in more detail elsewhere. It can be argued, for instance, that reptilians and amphibians live longer because they have decreased metabolic rates since they are cold-blooded animals.

Similarly, if the metabolic rate, the rate at which reactions occur in cells is higher in, for instance, mice than in humans then maybe that is why mice live less than humans Prinzinger, Despite its intuitive nature, there is no evidence that metabolic rates influence aging in endotherms like birds and mammals.

First of all, there are gross exceptions: bats and birds live longer than what would be expected for their metabolic rates. In addition, marsupials live less than eutherians and yet have lower body temperatures, which implies a lower metabolic rate Austad, a , pp. Another problem is related to body size. Metabolic rates are often estimated by measuring oxygen consumption at rest. Clearly, an elephant will breath in more oxygen than a mouse, so it is necessary to correct for body mass. Failure to do so will result in oxygen consumption being associated with tmax incorrectly--i.

When the effect of body mass is correctly eliminated from metabolic rates metabolic rates do not appear to correlate with tmax. In fact, recent results suggest that metabolic rates are not associated with tmax in mammals or birds after correcting for the effects of body mass using the most state-of-the-art statistical methods de Magalhaes et al. The exact methodology of these calculations can be attacked--e. Nonetheless, there are no results in which metabolic rates are correctly adjusted for body mass that show a correlation between metabolic rates and maximum lifespan in mammals or birds.

A Comparative Approach

Kleiber's rule is thus mostly discarded now. Partly related to metabolic rates, a point of debate is whether hibernating species live longer than non-hibernating species. So far the results are mixed, but some results suggest hibernating animals may live longer see, for instance, Lyman et al. On the other hand, it can be argued that spending a fraction of the year in hiding, during which time mortality is presumably low, contributes to the observed longer lifespan in hibernating animals.

Growth and development are two other factors that correlate with tmax. Independently of body mass, age at sexual maturity correlates with average and maximum adult lifespan in many taxa, including in mammals Charnov, ; Prothero, ; de Magalhaes et al. In other words, the longer it takes for a given mammalian species to reach sexual maturity, the longer it can live afterwards.

There are some exceptions, however, such as the male Anthechinus which is mentioned elsewhere. One hypothesis is that there is a mechanistic link between pace of development and pace of aging, as discussed in another essay. It is also worth mentioning that each organism's body-plan is largely determined by its genetic program, and the body-plan can have a powerful influence on longevity, as shown by aphagy in some insects or the semelparity of species like the salmon. So development and its consequential body-plan can influence aging to different degrees.

The body-plan of mammals, for instance, may place indirect constraints on adult life but this could be regarded as a by-product of development.

Horizons in the evolution of aging

That said, age at maturity correlates strongly with tmax in mammals which hints that common regulatory mechanisms could be involved de Magalhaes et al. Though not as strongly, growth rates also correlate negatively with tmax ; in other words, species that grow slower tend to live longer de Magalhaes et al.

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Likewise, growth rates correlate negatively with demographic rate of aging--not MRDT but a similar parameter estimated from the Weibull model Ricklefs, On the other hand, for evolutionary reasons , development can be timed similarly to aging even if the relation between development and aging in mammals is indirect and minimal Miller, Material and Methods 2.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Comparative analysis Data for different species in a comparative analysis are statistically dependent, as closely related species are more likely to have similar phenotypes because of the shared ancestry. Results Our comparative analysis identified residual brain size as a significant predictor of longevity in birds. Figure 2.

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Table 1 Full and reduced models for lifespan and reproductive lifespan in birds. Figure 3. Discussion Our comparative analyses gave support for a robust positive relationship between relative brain size and longevity in birds. Conflict of Interest None declared. Data Accessibility The raw data have been supplied as an Table S1.

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Acknowledgments We thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the earlier drafts of the manuscript. Notes Minias P, Podlaszczuk P. References Allman J. Allman J. Evolution , 60 , — Age and breeding effort as sources of individual variability in oxidative stress markers in bird species.

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Coevolving avian eye size in relation to prey capture and nocturnality.


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logoshirtshoppingmall.com/how-to-phone-track-vivo-y91c.php Energy metabolism, brain size and longevity in mammals.