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acknowledged XP authorities Kent Beck and Martin Fowler, Planning. Extreme Programming presents the approaches, methods, and advice you need to plan.
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You need that close daily connection to the business to produce the best product you can. User stories are the heart of planning in Extreme Programming XP. User stories can be printed or hand written on cards. The project scope and plan is simply and quickly created by manipulating the cards by hand. You will create three levels of plans. One which looks a few months into the future and groups stories into larger deployments. Another plan for stories in the next iteration. And finally a break down of stories into tasks with developer sign up for the current iteration. Plans are considered temporary artifacts in XP.

You will be expected to re-create your plans before they expire. Every time the customer gains insight you will make a new plan. Every time you slip or get ahead of your schedule you will make a new plan. Architectural spikes or prototypes are used to create a simple overall design also known as the system metaphor. CRC Cards, a simple groupware design technique, encourages all team members to understand and contribute to the design.

Put another way, account for the inherent variability in estimates to make sure you leave yourself a good chance of meeting your forecasts.

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The goal with the Ten-Minute Build is to automatically build the whole system and run all of the tests in ten minutes. The founders of XP suggested a 10 minute time frame because if a team has a build that takes longer than that, it is less likely to be run on a frequent basis, thus introducing longer time between errors. This practice encourages your team to automate your build process so that you are more likely to do it on a regular basis and to use that automated build process to run all of your tests.

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This practice supports the practice of Continuous Integration and is supported by the practice of Test First Development. Continuous Integration is a practice where code changes are immediately tested when they are added to a larger code base. The benefit of this practice is you can catch and fix integration issues sooner. Most teams dread the code integration step because of the inherent discovery of conflicts and issues that result. The reasoning behind that approach is that if you experience problems every time you integrate code, and it takes a while to find where the problems are, perhaps you should integrate more often so that if there are problems, they are much easier to find because there are fewer changes incorporated into the build.

The practice of Test-First Programming follows the path of:. As with Continuous Integration, Test-First Programming reduces the feedback cycle for developers to identify and resolve issues, thereby decreasing the number of bugs that get introduced into production. The practice of Incremental Design suggests that you do a little bit of work up front to understand the proper breadth-wise perspective of the system design, and then dive into the details of a particular aspect of that design when you deliver specific features.

This approach reduces the cost of changes and allows you to make design decisions when necessary based on the most current information available. The practice of Refactoring was originally listed among the 12 core, but was incorporated into the practice of Incremental Design. Refactoring is an excellent practice to use to keep the design simple, and one of the most recommended uses of refactoring is to remove duplication of processes.

Quantitative release planning in extreme programming

Although Extreme Programming specifies particular practices for your team to follow, it does not really establish specific roles for the people on your team. Depending on which source you read, there is either no guidance, or there is a description of how roles typically found in more traditional projects behave on Extreme Programming projects. Here are four most common roles associated with Extreme Programming:. The Customer role is responsible for making all of the business decisions regarding the project including:.

The XP Customer is expected to be actively engaged on the project and ideally becomes part of the team. The XP Customer is assumed to be a single person, however experience has shown that one person cannot adequately provide all of the business related information about a project. Your team needs to make sure that you get a complete picture of the business perspective, but have some means of dealing with conflicts in that information so that you can get clear direction.

Because XP does not have much need for role definition, everyone on the team with the exception of the customer and a couple of secondary roles listed below is labeled a developer. Developers are responsible for realizing the stories identified by the Customer. Because different projects require a different mix of skills, and because the XP method relies on a cross functional team providing the appropriate mix of skills, the creators of XP felt no need for further role definition.

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Some teams may have a tracker as part of their team. This is often one of the developers who spends part of their time each week filling this extra role. The main purpose of this role is to keep track of relevant metrics that the team feels necessary to track their progress and to identify areas for improvement. Key metrics that your team may track include velocity, reasons for changes to velocity, amount of overtime worked, and passing and failing tests.

This is not a required role for your team, and is generally only established if your team determines a true need for keeping track of several metrics. If your team is just getting started applying XP, you may find it helpful to include a Coach on your team. This is usually an outside consultant or someone from elsewhere in your organization who has used XP before and is included in your team to help mentor the other team members on the XP Practices and to help your team maintain your self discipline.

The main value of the coach is that they have gone through it before and can help your team avoid mistakes that most new teams make.


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To describe XP in terms of a lifecycle it is probably most appropriate to revisit the concept of the Weekly Cycle and Quarterly Cycle. First, start off by describing the desired results of the project by having customers define a set of stories. As these stories are being created, the team estimates the size of each story. This size estimate, along with relative benefit as estimated by the customer can provide an indication of relative value which the customer can use to determine priority of the stories.

Spikes are short, time-boxed time frames set aside for the purposes of doing research on a particular aspect of the project. Spikes can occur before regular iterations start or alongside ongoing iterations.

Next, the entire team gets together to create a release plan that everyone feels is reasonable. This release plan is a first pass at what stories will be delivered in a particular quarter, or release. The stories delivered should be based on what value they provide and considerations about how various stories support each other. Then the team launches into a series of weekly cycles. At the beginning of each weekly cycle, the team including the customer gets together to decide which stories will be realized during that week.

The team then breaks those stories into tasks to be completed within that week.

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At the end of the week, the team and customer review progress to date and the customer can decide whether the project should continue, or if sufficient value has been delivered. He wound up adding a couple of other folks, including Ron Jeffries to the team and changing the way the team approached development. This project helped to bring the XP methodology into focus and the several books written by people who were on the project helped spread knowledge about and adaptation of this approach.

Many teams adopting agile start by using a different framework and when they identify the need for more disciplined engineering practices they adopt several if not all of the engineering practices espoused by XP. An additional, and equally important, contribution of XP is the focus on practice excellence. The method prescribes a small number of absolutely essential practices and encourages teams to perform those practices as good as they possibly can, almost to the extreme.

This is where the name comes from. Not because the practices themselves are necessarily radical although some consider some of them pretty far out rather that teams continuously focus so intently on continuously improving their ability to perform those few practices. Please log in to access the link. Welcome Username. Remember Me. Forgot Password. Not a Member or Subscriber? Extreme Programming. Definition Extreme Programming XP is an agile software development framework that aims to produce higher quality software, and higher quality of life for the development team.

Values The five values of XP are communication, simplicity, feedback, courage, and respect and are described in more detail below. Communication Software development is inherently a team sport that relies on communication to transfer knowledge from one team member to everyone else on the team.

Feedback Through constant feedback about their previous efforts, teams can identify areas for improvement and revise their practices. Respect The members of your team need to respect each other in order to communicate with each other, provide and accept feedback that honors your relationship, and to work together to identify simple designs and solutions.

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Practices The core of XP is the interconnected set of software development practices listed below. Sit Together Since communication is one of the five values of XP, and most people agree that face to face conversation is the best form of communication, have your team sit together in the same space without barriers to communication, such as cubicle walls. Whole Team A cross functional group of people with the necessary roles for a product form a single team.